NOTE: Neither the IOTTA TWG nor SNIA vouch for the accuracy or reliability of any of the traces or other information provided below. Please contact us regarding any broken or inaccurate links.

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System Call Traces

Code File System Traces
Traces of all system call activity on 33 machines collected between February 1991 and March 1993. Full data set is 24 GB, only a subset of it is available on-line. The site also has pointers to the DFSTrace tools that were used to collect this data. [Mummert96] provides extensive information about the design and implementation of the trace tool.

Drew Roselli's Traces
Several months of traces from three different environments, an academic research cluster, an instructional cluster used for student programming assignments, and a web-server. Traces were collected in late 1996 and early 1997. Only a portion of the full set of traces are available on-line. A USENIX paper and UC Berkeley Technical Report describe and analyze the traces [Roselli98] [Roselli00].

Kentucky Traces
Traces from two workstations. One is seven days, the other ten days. The traces were collected circa 1993. The web page describes the traces and gives contact information for requesting the trace data via e-mail. This data was used in [Appleton94].

Mambo Suite
System call traces of several Parallel I/O workloads. [Uysal97]

Seer Traces
Traces collected in 1996-7 on 9 laptops in an CS research environment over periods varying from 1 to 10 months. These traces were described in [Kuenning97].

Sprite Traces
Eight days of traces collected in academic research cluster during 1991. These traces were initially described and analyzed in [Baker91].

Network File System Traces

Berkeley Auspex Traces
One week of NFS traffic from 236 clients accessing an Auspex server in late 1993. They were gathered by Cliff Mather by snooping Ethernet packets on four subnets. The clients are the desktop workstations of the University of California at Berkeley Computer Science Division.

Harvard NFS Traces
Dan Ellard's Harvard Traces Extensive set of NFS traces covering many months. Collected from Campus e-mail server and departmental file server. Contact Dan Ellard ( for more information. [Ellard03a] [Ellard03b]

Parallel Traces

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Traces
LANL has released static file tree data (fsstats), including aggregate information on capacity, file and directory sizes, filename lengths, link counts, etc. The fsstats cover 9 anonymous parallel filesystems ranging from 16 TB to 439 TB total capacity used and file counts range from 2,024,729 to 43,605,555.

Other Data Sets

ECMWF Data Handling Log Traces
Traces from the storage landscape of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) with over 100 PB of archives. Traces were collected from Jan 1, 2012, to May 20, 2014.

OLTP Application and Search Engine I/O Traces
The UMass trace repository holds several storage traces, including two I/O traces from OLTP applications run at financial institutions, and three I/O traces from a popular search engine.

Plan 9 File System Traces
This is a time series set of "snapshots" of the contents of the Plan 9 file servers at Bell Labs. One snapshot per day for a number of years.

Yahoo! Traces
The Yahoo Webscope Program holds multiple datasets of traces collected from Yahoo servers. These datasets are only for non-commercial use.

Tools and Documentation

Microsoft Event Tracing (1) (2)

Stonybrook University Dataseries Documentation Wiki

Computer Storage Systems Research Discussion Forum

Traces and Snapshots Public Archive

Storage Research Centers

Carnegie Mellon University
Parallel Data Lab (PDL)

San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC)

University of Minnesota
Digital Technology Center (DTC)
Intelligent Storage Consortium (DISC)

Storage Performance Council (SPC)

Papers and Publications

Papers Relating to Traces

[Harter11] Tyler Harter, Chris Dragga, Michael Vaughn, Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau.
A File is Not a File: Understanding the I/O Behavior of Apple Desktop Applications.
Department of Computer Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison. 2011.

[Ellard03b] Daniel Ellard, Margo Seltzer.
NFS Tricks and Benchmarking Traps.
Proceedings of the FREENIX Technical Conference, San Antonio, Texas. June, 2003.

[Ellard03a] Daniel Ellard, Jonathan Ledlie, Pia Malkani, Margo Seltzer.
Passive NFS Tracing of Email and Research Workloads.
Proceedings of the Second Annual USENIX File and Storage Technologies Conference, pp. 203-216, San Francisco, CA. March, 2003.

[Roselli00] Drew Roselli, Jacob R. Lorch, Thomas E. Anderson.
A Comparison of File System Workloads.
Proceedings of the 2000 USENIX Technical Conference, pp. 44 - 54. San Diego, CA. June, 2000.

[Vogels99] Werner Vogels.
File system usage in Windows NT 4.0.
Proceedings of the 17th Symposium on Operating System Principles, pp. 93 - 109. Kiawah Island Resort, SC. December, 1999.

[Douceur99] John R. Douceur, William J. Bolosky.
A Large-Scale Study of File-System Contents.
Proceedings of SIGMETRICS '99, pp. 59 - 70. Atlanta, GA. May, 1999.

[Kuenning97] Geoffrey H. Kuenning and Gerald J. Popek.
Automated Hoarding for Mobile Computers.
Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, St. Malo, France, October 5-8, 1997.

[Uysal97] Mustafa Uysal, Anurag Acharya, Joel Saltz.
Requirements of I/O Systems for Parallel Machines: An Application-driven Study.
Technical Report, CS-TR-3802, University of Maryland, College Park. May 1997.

[Mummert96] L. Mummert, M. Satyanarayanan.
Long Term Distributed File Reference Tracing: Implementation and Experience.
Software - Practice and Experience, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 705 - 736. June, 1996.

[Blackwell95] Trevor Blackwell, Jeffrey Harris, Margo Seltzer.
Heuristic Cleaning Algorithms in Log-Structured File Systems.
Proceedings of the 1995 USENIX Technical Conference, pp. 277 - 288. New Orleans, LA. January, 1995.

[Griffioen94] Jim Griffioen, Randy Appleton.
Reducing File System Latency using a Predictive Approach.
Proceedings of the Summer 1994 USENIX Technical Conference, pp. 197 - 207. Boston, MA. June, 1994.

[Chiang93] Chi-ming Chiang, Matt W. Mutka.
Characteristics of User File Usage Patterns.
Systems and Software, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 257 - 268. December, 1993.

[Ruemmler93] Chris Ruemmler, John Wilkes.
UNIX Disk Access Patterns.
Proceedings of the Winter 1993 USENIX Technical Conference, pp. 405 - 420. San Diego, CA. January, 1993.

[Ramakrishnan92] K.K. Ramakrishnan, Prabuddha Biswas, Ramakrishna Karedla.
Analysis of File I/O Traces in Commercial Computing Environments.
Proceedings of SIGMETRICS '92, pp. 78 - 90. Newport, RI. June, 1992.

[Roselli98] Drew Roselli, Thomas E. Anderson.
Characteristics of File System Workloads.
University of California Berkeley Computer Science Division Technical Report UCB//CSD-98-1029. 1992.

[Shirriff92] Ken Shirriff, John K. Ousterhout.
A Trace-Driven Analysis of Name and Attribute Caching in a Distributed System.
Proceedings of the Winter 1992 USENIX Technical Conference, pp. 315 - 332. San Francisco, CA. January, 1992.

[Miller91] Ethan L. Miller, Randy H. Katz.
Input/Output Behavior of Supercomputing Applications.
Proceedings of the 1991 Conference on Supercomputing, pp. 567 - 576. Albuquerque, NM. November, 1991.

[Baker91] M. Baker, J. Hartman, M. Kupfer, K. Shirriff, and J. Ousterhout.
Measurements of a Distributed File System.
Proceedings of the 13th ACM Symposium of Operating Systems Principles, pp. 198 - 212. October 1991.

[Bozman91] G.P. Bozman, H.H. Ghannad, E.D. Weinberger.
A trace-driven study of CMS file references.
IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 35, No. 5/6, pp. 815 - 828. September/November, 1991.

[Bennet91] J. Michael Bennet, Michael A. Bauer, David Kinchlea.
Characteristics of Files in NFS Environments.
Proceedings of the 1991 ACM Symposium on Small Systems, pp. 33 - 40. 1991.

[Biswas90] P. Biswas, K.K. Ramakrishnan.
File Access Characterization of VAX/VMS Environments.
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 227 - 234. Paris, France. May, 1990.

[Floyd86] Rick Floyd.
Short-Term File Reference Patterns in a UNIX Environment.
University of Rochester Computer Science Technical Report #177. March, 1986.

[Ousterhout85] J. Ousterhout, H. Costa, D. Harrison, J. Kunze, M. Kupfer, J. Thompson.
A Trace-Driven Analysis of the UNIX 4.2BSD File System.
Proceedings of the 10th Symposium on Operating System Principles, pp. 15 - 24. Orcas Island, WA. December, 1985.

[Satyanarayanan81] M. Satyanarayanan.
A Study of File Sizes and Functional Lifetimes.
Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Operating System Principles, pp. 96 - 108. Pacific Grove, CA. December, 1981.

[Smith81] A. J. Smith.
Analysis of Long Term File Reference Patterns for Application to File Migration Algorithms.
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol SE-7, No. 4, pp. 403 - 417. July, 1981.

Publications That Cite

The following publications cite as a source of trace data used in their research. They are organized in reverse chronological order. This list attempts to be comprehensive but is not complete; feel free to contact us to suggest additional entries.

[Chen et al., 2019]
Jing Chen, Yi Wang, Amelie Chi Zhou, Rui Mao, and Tao Li. PATCH: Process-variation-resilient space allocation for open-channel SSD with 3D flash. In 2019 Design, Automation and Test in Europe, Florence, Italy, 2019. IEEE. (doi:10.23919/DATE.2019.8715197)
[Guo et al., 2019]
Chang Guo, Ying Li, Hongzhi Liu, and Zhonghai Wu. An application-oriented cache allocation and prefetching method for long-running applications in distributed storage systems. Chinese Journal of Electronics, 28:773–780, 2019. (doi:10.1049/cje.2019.05.004)
[Li et al., 2019]
Jian-Geng Li, Guan-Yu Chen, Hsung-Pin Chang, and Da-Wei Chang. SSKIP: Lifetime aware page skipping for multi-level cell flash-based solid-state drives. In 2019 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication, Auckland, New Zealand, 2019. IEEE. (doi:10.23919/ELINFOCOM.2019.8706493)
[Wu et al., 2019]
Suzhen Wu, Weiwei Zhang, Bo Mao, and Hong Jiang. HotR: Alleviating read/write interference with hot read data replication for flash storage. In 2019 Design, Automation and Test in Europe, Florence, Italy, 2019. IEEE. (doi:10.23919/DATE.2019.8715100)
[Du et al., 2019]
Yajuan Du, Yao Zhou, Meng Zhang, Wei Liu, and Shengwe Xiong. Adapting layer RBERs variations of 3D flash memories via multi-granularity progressive LDPC reading. In Proceedings of the 56thACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 2019. ACM. (doi:10.1145/3316781.3317759)
[Akgun, 2019]
Ibrahim Umit Akgun. Re-animator: Versatile high-fidelity system-call tracing and replaying. Technical report, Stony Brook University, May 2019.
[Kwon, 2019]
Se Jin Kwon. Address translation layer for byte-addressable non-volatile memory-based solid state drives. IEEE Access, 7:73207–73214, May 2019. (doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2920249)
[Mativenga et al., 2019]
Ronnie Mativenga, Se Jin Kwon, and Tae-Sun Chung. HyFAT: Affordable hybrid fast address translating device driver for multichannel-based flash devices. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 65:142–149, May 2019. (doi:10.1109/TCE.2019.2904304)
[Wu et al., 2019]
Suzhen Wu, Haijun Li, Bo Mao, Xiaxi Chen, and Kuan-Ching Li. Overcome the GC-induced performance variability in SSD-based RAIDs with request redirection. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 38:822–833, May 2019. (doi:10.1109/TCAD.2018.2834407)
[Kim et al., 2019]
Myeongjin Kim, Wontaeck Jung, Hyuk-Jun Lee, and Eui-Yong Chung. A novel NAND flash memory architecture for maximally exploiting plane-level parallelism. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems, 27:1957–1961, April 2019. (doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2019.2905626)

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